This study investigates the influence of quality of work life on employee commitment in deposit money banks in Rivers State. The objective of the study was to establish the relationship between quality of work life and employee commitment. The research design adopted for the study was survey research design. One hundred and ninety two (192) copies of questionnaire were distributed to the respondent. A total of one hundred and eighty (180) copies of the distributed questionnaire were retrieved. These copies were analyzed and the hypotheses were tested using the Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient with the aid of SPSS Version 20. The result revealed that; there is a significant relationship between job security and creative thinking, job security and proactiveness, safety and well-being and creative thinking, safety and well-being and proactiveness, employee empowerment and creative thinking, employee empowerment and proactiveness. Also, corporate culture was seen to positively influence the relationship between quality of work life and employee commitment. Based on these, the null hypotheses were rejected and the alternate hypotheses accepted. The study therefore concluded that an improvement of employee welfare will play a major role in employee commitment. The study recommends thus; that the deposit money bank managers should create a pro-innovation and encouraging organizational environment, to create an appropriate vision and decide on the strategies which will make it possible to benefit from the organizations‟ values as much as possible, and to plan tasks in a way that will empower employees and support innovation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents viii
List of Table x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
- Background of the Study
- Statement of the Problem
- Objective of the Study
- Research Question
- Research Hypotheses
- Signification of the Study
- Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Concept of Worklife Balance
2.2 Concept of Quality of Work Life
2.3 Quality of Work Life and Employee Commitment
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Area of Study
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Population/ Sample Size
3.4 Sampling Technique
3.5 Data Collection Methods
3.6 Data Analysis Method
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, FINDING AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Data Analysis
4.3 Discussion of Finding
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND SUGGESTION
1.1 background of the study
Organizations have increasingly become interested in creativity and innovation, in part as a response to the pressures associated with globalization, competition, economic factors, and technology changes. Many organizational leaders recognize creativity as an opportunity for gaining a sustainable competitive advantage. To remain competitive in the global market, organizations must continuously develop innovative and high quality products and services, and renew their way of operating. In the heart of all innovation lies creative ideas and it is individual employees, who alone or in groups, generate, promote, discuss, modify and realize these ideas (Scott & Bruce, 1994). It is therefore not surprising that innovative employees are the chief currency for contemporary organizations. Arising from this, question how to promote and support employee’s Commitmentpresents a key issue that faces academics and organizational managers.
Employee Commitmentrequires that the individual is able and willing to be innovative. With respect to abilities, such employee should possess above average general intellect, certain cognitive capabilities, general skills and task and context-specific knowledge. These are facilitators of Commitment(Taggar, 2002). Beyond knowledge and skills, Commitmentrequires intrinsic motivation and a certain level of internal force that pushes the individual to persevere in the face of challenges inherent in the creative work (Shalley & Gilson, 2004). Moreover, the internal force keeps the employee going even when the challenges are successfully overcome.
Quality of work life is a very important phenomenon that is of great concern to various employees in both private and public sector and particularly the banking sector. It goes beyond prioritizing the work role and one’s personal life. It also affects the social, psychological, economical and mental well-being of the individual. All these are reflected in the output of the individual, which affects his or her performance in the work place on the long run. Work life balance has implication on employee attitudes, behaviours, wellbeing as well as organizational effectiveness (Eby, Casper, Lockwood, Bordeanx & Brindley, 2005).
The competition for market leadership in the banking sector, may lead to bank managers giving their employees excessive work load in order to meet up with their target. Also, employees try their best to be retained in the organization by putting in more time at work which may be detriment to their personal life.
According to Epie (2011), the Nigerian banking sector is known for its long hour culture, and high work load of employees. Bank employees in Nigeria are most likely to be faced with issue of work life balance, due to the nature of the work environment. Policies are been made regarding work life balance, but its implementation has become an issue that needs to be looked into. Ensuring effective delivery of service to customers may be achieved by the ability of the management of these banks to maintain policies that promote work life balance.
The reform in the banking sector made it mandatory for Deposit banks to have a minimum of 25 billion naira capital base to continue their operations. Consequently, Deposit banks had to go into strategic alliance with other banks, by merger and acquisition. This has changed the focus of many banks to form new strategy that entails expansion, increasing capital base and customer base. All these have led to managers having higher expectation of employees‟ performance. It is most likely that there will be a misplacement of priority of interest by the employees trying to meet up with the target of the banks, which may affect their personal life.
The multifaceted demand between work and home responsibilities have assumed increased relevance for employees in Deposit banks in recent years. This is due to demographic and workplace changes, such as; transformation in family structures, growing reluctance for „long number of hours‟ acceptance culture, greater number of women in the workforce and technological advancement. All these may result in the employees having difficulty in prioritizing between their work roles and their personal lives. When Deposit banks like United Bank for Africa plc, First Bank of Nigeria plc, Zenith bank PLC have a poor work organizational culture; as evident in buying of work-leave of employees, inconvenient period of leave for employees and the inability of employers to keep to leave policy in their employment agreement. All these may lead to stretched workloads which bring about different issues in the employee. These issue involves both the psychologically and the emotional well-being of employee and these action may result in reduction in employee Commitment.
Another major issue that may hinder employee Commitmentis when work life balance incentives like, leave entitlement, flexi time, and family and welfare policies, are not adhered to by the management of these banks.
These may lead some employees to work round the clock with little attention to themselves and their families, which may result in broken home and poor parental upbringing. The personal issues that employees of United bank for Africa PLC, first bank of Nigeria PLC, zenith bank PLC for instance, face outside work, may demoralize them and in turn discourage them to be zealous in their service delivery to customers. All these may result in customers threatening to withdraw their patronage from the banks. The consequences of these issues prompted this research investigation.
Hence, the study of quality of work life and employee Commitmentis imperative.
Empirically, many researchers have worked on the construct of quality of work life with various concepts. For example; Vishwaet (2015) investigated Empirical analysis of work life balance policies and its impact on employee’s job satisfaction and performance. Azeem and Akhtar (2014) investigated the influence of. In Nigeria, Ojo, Salau and Falola (2014) investigated the concept of work-life balance policies and practices in three sectors of the Nigerian Economy namely the Banking, Educational and Power Sector. Fapohunda (2014) investigated the effect of work life balance on productivity. From the foregoing, there is little evidence of previous empirical works showing the relationship between quality of work life and employee Commitment.
Therefore, there exists a literature gap which has informed our study on the construct of quality of work life and Commitmentin Nigerian banks.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The critical situation of employee Commitments caused by endless working hours, rigidity and lack of spare time to meet personal and family needs has inflicted the individuals‟ stress levels in an organization thereby reducing disposition which affects employee innovation at work and hampering concentration. Most Organizations were not aware of employees‟ needs in order to provide them with flexibility, permitting them to combine work and personal spheres to meet professional and personal goals. Also, when employees accumulate specific knowledge about the organization they become crucial for its performance, as it is more difficult to find comparable substitutes. In the past, employers of labour have lamented that employees perform their work efficiently when they are newly employed but with time, their efficiency and productively decreases.
The employees have attributed decrease in efficiency and productivity to the fact that employers do not provide adequate incentives and motivation to enable them put in their best.
The wellbeing of workers who kept their employment can be negatively affected by job insecurity (Scherer, 2009). Many individuals feel under pressure to work longer hours to keep their job (Wayman, 2010), and to meet their family expenses (Edwards & Rothbard, 2000).
Higher demands on employees‟ duties and longer working hours reduce the time workers have to spend with their families (Hill, 2005). Statistics show that in 2011 men worked an average of 39.4 hours a week and women 30.6 hours. In Nigeria, heavier work demands faced by employees also result in higher levels of stress, which negatively impacts workers‟ physical and psychological well-being.
Organizations and managers need to understand the importance of quality work life, and its impact on employees‟ creativity, proactiveness and responsiveness. These challenges and higher demands from work and family life have been found to have negative effects on the wellbeing of workers and their families, and resulted in family-work conflicts and work family conflicts (Aryee, Srinivas & Tan, 2005). Based on these facts, this study would therefore investigate the relationship between quality of work life and employee Commitmentin Nigerian banks.
1.3 Aim & Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between quality of work life and employee Commitment of Deposit money banks in Rivers State. Specifically, the following objectives are hereby stated:
- To examine the relationship between job security and employee Commitment in Deposit money banks in Rivers State.
- To ascertain the relationship between safety and well-being and employee Commitment in Deposit money banks in Rivers State.
- To establish the relationship between employee empowerment and employee Commitment in Deposit money banks in Rivers State.
- To determine the extent to which corporate culture affects the relationship between quality of work life and employee Commitment in Deposit money banks in Rivers State.
1.4 Research Questions
The research questions that would guide this study are;
- What is the relationship between job security and employee Commitmentin Deposit money banks in Rivers State?
- What is the relationship between safety and well-being and employee Commitmentin Deposit money banks in Rivers State?
- What is the relationship between employee empowerment and employee Commitment in Deposit money banks in Rivers State?
- How does corporate culture moderate the relationship between quality of work life and employee Commitment of Deposit money banks in Rivers State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested for this study;
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between job security and creative thinking in Deposit money banks in Rivers State.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between job security and proactiveness in Deposit money banks in Rivers State.
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between safety & well-being and creative thinking in Deposit money banks in Rivers State.
Ho4: There is no significant relationship between safety & well-being and proactiveness in Deposit money banks in Rivers State.
Ho5: There is no significant relationship between employee empowerment and creative thinking in Deposit money banks in Rivers State
Ho6: There is no significant relationship between employee empowerment and proactiveness in Deposit money banks in Rivers State.
Ho7: Corporate culture does not significantly influence the relationship between quality of work life and employee Commitment in Deposit money banks in Rivers State
1.6 Significance of the study
Nigeriais a labour oriented developing country. There are many industries, which are enriching our economy. Among those industries, banking industry is most important. Because it has created many jobs towards the Nigerian economy.
The significance of this research is that selected scope for private sector Deposit banks has not been undertaken by any research in the area of work life balance and job satisfaction until this. Since the private sector Deposit banks spend considerable amount of money and time for their employees’ benefits and services, it is most important for these organization to understand those factors which may occurs its employee work life and job satisfaction in increasing the organization performance can be enhanced and achieve organization goals.
The findings of the study will help:
• To identify the prevalent type of work life balance in private sector Deposit banks. The study is of significance for the private sector Deposit banks. The study contributes to existing body of knowledge by providing an insight into relationship exist between work life balances and job satisfaction among the employees. Globalization has brought tremendous changes in working conditions thus give rise to various issues and problems for employees.
• To identify HR coping mechanisms for achieving Work Life Balance The study will help to get awareness about the issues and problems faced by employees at work place that will be of beneficial for organizations and institutions to formulate strategies that will booster satisfaction level and maintain a healthy work life balance among employees.
• Provide recommendations for better work-life balance policies, and strategies. Ultimately it supports the managements to enhance organizations effectiveness and efficiency through identifying different factors effect to employee work-life and job satisfaction. Through that they could build up and introduced new policies and strategies in order to eliminate the issues faced by employees.
1.7 Definition of Terms
1.7.1 Work-Life Balance
Work and Life have been rather loosely defined in literature (Guest 2002) where work is paid employment and life is everything outside of the formal employment but is usually used to denote the realm of family or home life (Ransome 2007). The concept is loosely defined and is seen to derive from gender division of labour and this renders work life balance its narrow focus (Ransome 2007). Further, balance implies an equal distribution of work and the rest of life. It is not possible to ensure that at all times there is an equal distribution among these. According to Guest, the term Work-Life Balance is in itself a misnomer (Guest 2002). Given the fluid nature of needs and responsibilities and their changing nature at different life stages, the division of activity will neither be easy to measure nor equal, and therefore notions of negotiation, cooperation and compromise, reciprocity and complementarities might be better terms than balance (Ransome 2007).
1.7.2 Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is the level of contentment a person feels regarding his or her job. This feeling is mainly based on an individual’s perception of satisfaction. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a person’s ability to complete required tasks, the level of communication in an organization, and the way management treats employees. Job satisfaction falls into two levels: affective job satisfaction and cognitive job satisfaction. Affective job satisfaction is a person’s emotional feeling about the job as a whole. Cognitive job satisfaction is how satisfied employees feel concerning some aspect of their job, such as pay, hours, or benefits.
- Private Sector
The part of the economy that is not state controlled, and is run by individuals and companies for profit. The private sector encompasses all for-profit businesses that are not owned or operated by the government. Companies and corporations that are government run are part of what is known as the public sector, while charities and other non-profit organizations are part of the voluntary sector. In most free-market economies, the private sector is the sector where most jobs are held. This differs from countries where the government exerts considerable power over the economy.
- Deposit Bank
This is a financial institution providing services for businesses, organizations and individuals. It provides services, such as accepting Deposit s, giving business loans and auto loans, mortgage lending, and basic investment products like savings accounts and certificates of Deposit . Deposit banks make their profits by taking small, short-term, relatively liquid Deposit s and transforming these into larger, longer maturity loans. This process of asset transformation generates net income for the Deposit bank. A Deposit bank is one primarily engaged in Deposit and lending activities to both private and corporate clients in wholesale and retail banking. Other services typically include bank and credit cards, private banking, custody and guarantees, cash management and settlement as well as trade finance. The traditional Deposit bank is a brick and mortar institution with tellers, safe Deposit boxes, vaults and ATMs. However, some Deposit banks do not have any physical branches and require consumers to complete all transactions by phone or internet. In exchange, they generally pay higher interest rates on investments and Deposit s, and charge lower fees.
Deposit banking activities are different than those of investment banking, which include underwriting, acting as an intermediary between an issuer of securities and the investing public, facilitating mergers and other corporate reorganizations, and also acting as a broker for institutional clients.