This study was undertaken to find out the impact of training and development of multinational manufacturing firms in Port Harcourt. Six firms we selected for this study. Data collection for this work was done through the questionnaire which is a primary source, personal interviewers was also used. The analysis of data was done using percentages and chi-square best. Tables were also used to present data so as to covey reasonable meanings. From our findings include that training and development impacts greatly on the success and growth of multinational manufacturing firms, that training and development also has a positive impact on employee performance. We then conclude that Nigeria firms undertake training and development progammes for their employees that one of the reasons is to increase the productivity of employees in the organization. As it were, are recommend that training and development programmes be done frequently in the organization to upgrade the employee on a continuous basis so as to keep him or her fit to meet the challenges of the dynamic environment.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Caring about the well-being of the employees by the employer is important because satisfied employees are much more productive compared to unsatisfied employees. Employees’ productivity stimulates the motivation of employees and employees are thus willing to work harder for the organization and are willing to prove goals (Kevin, 2013). A study of Gallup shows that companies with a larger employees’ productivity have a larger customer satisfaction, have more success in decreasing the employee turnover and have better safety records. According to Simmons (2013) measuring employees’ productivity is often done by conducting employee productivity surveys. This is a suitable and valuable approach when actions are conducted to improve the organization and when these actions do not only show an effect on the short term, but on the long term as well.
Kevin (2013) pointed out that job satisfaction is how content an individual is with his or her job. Scholars and human resource
professionals generally make a distinction between affective work satisfaction and cognitive work satisfaction. Affective work satisfaction is the extent of pleasurable emotional feelings individuals have about
their jobs overall, and is different to cognitive work satisfaction which the extent of individuals’ satisfaction with particular facets of their
jobs, such as pay, pension art arrangements, working hours, and numerous other aspects their jobs (Saari. 2O1).
Simmons (2013) argues that how lob satisfaction is measured depends on whether affective or cognitive work satisfaction is 0; interest. The majority of job satisfaction measures are self-reports and based on multi-item scales. Several measures have been developed over the years, although they vary in terms of how carefully and distinctively they are conceptualized with respect to affective or ‘cognitive work satisfaction. They also vary in terms of the extent and rigour of their psychometric validation. Stephen strongly believes that employee productivity depends on the leadership style been practice by the organization. It was in this line that James Armstrong one of the leading scholars of leadership technique portrays that there is a positive correlation between authentic leadership and employee productivity.
One way to achieved sustainable growth in the business environment is for the leadership of the firm to ensure there is adequate program on training and development of skills, identifying potentials, cognitive ability, capacity building and acquisition of knowledge (Kotler, 2013). The process of planning, organizing and implementation to attain these factors towards job satisfaction is regarded as management training program.
The study of careers in organizational contexts the way in which careers shape and are shaped by organizations is short of theoretical and systematic approaches. Arthur, Hall, and Lawrence 1989) have
indicated that the concept of a career is not the property of any one theoretical or disciplinary view. They presented eight viewpoints from the social sciences on the career concept psychology, social psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, political science, history, and geography), none of which Concentrated specifically on its organizational aspects. This kind of breadth, while making important links among disciplines, leaves the study of careers in organizations without a dear focus. This makes it difficult to generate a comprehensive theory and I subsequently lead to a problem of how to design empirical studies to examine such an unfocused concept. Careers are something of a late entrant in management theory: Boerlijst (1984) claimed that the career as a whole began to receive real attention only in the 70’s. More systematic study of careers has arisen since; yet the organizational aspect in career theory still lacks a comprehensive framework. It seems that, apart from normative designs for career systems, there is not yet an accepted theoretical model of career processes let alone any empirical tests of such a model.
Meanwhile, the bulk of research in the careers area has moved beyond organizations to focus on more flexible, individual models such as the “Bowidaryless Career” (Arthur & Roisseau, 1996), “Protean Career” (H’, 1976,1996), and ‘Post-Corporate Career”.
(Peperl & Baruch, 1997). Qearly the wave of the future for many people, such careers nonetheless still involve links between organizations and individuals, although in a less structured or permanent way (Broussean, Driver, Eneroth, & Larsson, 1996). Despite the unfashionability of organizational careers, it is, therefore, still important to take the organizational viewpoint into account in understanding career practices in order to put the newer, more individual views into context.
The possible contribution of such studies was demonstrated by Robertson & Makin’s (1986) work on the use of selection practices in 108 organizations. Their study was replicated by Shackeltora & Newell (1991) and findings from both show how personnel practices can lit together to create good Human Resource Management (IIRM) practice in the selection area. The present study explores the area of management training program systems and provides a model for the way in which organizational career systems are put into operation.
“Career” is here taken to mean a process of development of the employee along a path of experience and jobs that may be in one or more orgasizations (Baruch & Rosenstein, 1992).
FIRM in organizations includes many practices concerned with the management of careers. Strategic the 1980s as an attempt to associate HRM with the strategy and direction of organizations (Foxnbrun, Tichy & Devanna, 1994; more recent effort include those of Ghoshal 2000). Closely following came theoretical system within the organization, and practice, including those by Von Glinow, Driver, Brousseau & Prince (1983); and Sonnenfeld & Peiperl (1988). Little research, however, has examined the actual process of management training gram within organizations. (Notable exceptions include Howard & Bray’s (1988) longitudinal study of managers in the Bell System and Lindsey, Holmes, & McCall’s (1987) study of high potential managers’ growth; both of these, however, primarily focused on the individual rather than. the organization.) Nonetheless, writers have emphasized the importance of career practices and activities and the increasing efforts exerted by top management in many organizations (hall, 1986). Organizatiosis have assumed more responsibility within this area, even if not always by means of traditional; long-term approaches and the management training program practices they employ need to be better understood.
Very few theoretical career models exist, and most relate to the individual perspective (Arthur, lnkson, & Pringle, 1999; Dalton, Thompson, & Price, 1977; Driver, 1979; Greenhouse, 1987; Hall, 1976, 1996; Schein, 1978). The theoretical base of organizational management training program is quite thin (Arthur, Hall, & Lawrence, 1989; Gunz & Jalland, 1996) and shows little convergence (Peiperl & Arthur, 2000; Sullivan, 199). Schein’s cone model of career development is perhaps the only prominent example that reflects both individual developmental paths and organizational systems (yet even this is dearly outdated, based on its static, single-firm perspective). For the few models that do reflect the organizational aspect, empirical Validations are rare. Several works explore the existence of the management training program practices, but these were not directed to test theory or build it further. There is a need, therefore, to consider the current state of management training program practice in organizations, to look for patterns, and to associate these with a wider framework. To investigate and model management training program practices require a comprehensive view of what those practices are. We began with the broader category of HRM practices and examined existing research. Tsui & Gomez-Mejia (1988) suggested a list of activities, programs, and methods with which the organization can handle HRM processes. Gutteridge & Otte (1983) also presented a catalogue of organizational HRM practices (Dalton & Thompson, 1986; Flippo, 1984; Hall, 1986; Torrington, MacKay, & I-Tall, 1985; Tyson & Fell, 1986). Among these practices were those that had a close relationship with organizational career planning and its management. “Organizational Management training program” (0CM), as we call it, is concerned with the organization carrying out activities relevant to the career development, career training and career strategy of its employees. (This is distinct from management training program as practiced by individuals, consultants, or job centres, for example, although it is not mutually exclusive with, but rather may complement them.) The importance and prominence of 0CM has been recognized by many scholars (Gutteridge, 1986;
Hall, 1986 Lech, 1977, mayo 1991; Schein, 1978; Van Maanen & Schein, 1977).
We also looked at several, sources which suggested lists of 0CM practices specifically (lbaruch 1996). An earlier survey by Walker & Gutteridge (179) identified 10 0CM activities, although some of these were closer to other aspects of HRM than to 0CM recruitment, work- family interface). Some aspects of 0CM practices and activities had been discussed by Gutteridge arid Otte (1983), but their discussion was limited to 10 practices and an evaluation of only three of them. Perhaps the widest list was that provided by Gutteridge, Leibowitz, & Shore (1993) in their study of 0CM in the United States. Their study, however, concentrated on large American business organizations only (the top 1,000 United States corporations) and might thus have been unrepresentative of broaderpractice.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Companies that engage in management training program are strategic and deliberate in how they source, attract, develop,retain,promote, and move employees through the organization. Thus, the advert of career development, career training and career strategy could reciprocate the pitfalls and bottlenecks that engulf job satisfaction in the long-terms. The critical problem that OSS chl1enges towards proficiency in job satisfaction is how to align her affective work satisfaction, cognitive work satisfaction and productivity measures towards career development, career training and career strategyto create positive influence on the firm performance efficiency.
The facts that firm cannot aligned its affective work satisfactions, cognitive work satisfaction and productivity measures towards enhancing their job satisfaction has created a lot of loss in the profitability, success factors, turnover and so on. Thus, this study will address the fundamental challenges y the application of management training program to have a positive resultant influence over affective work satisfactions, cognitive work satisfaction and productivity.
Furthermore, the dependent and independent variables in collaboration with their sub-indicators are showed below hi a conceptualized framework.
CONCEPTUALIZED FRAMEWORK ON THE INFLUENCE OF MANAGEMENT TRAINING PROGRAMME ON EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
Source: Conceptualized by the researcher, 2015
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Generally, this work tends to examine the influence of management training program on employee productivity. In a more specific sense the of the study include the following;
1. To examine the relationship between career development and affective work satisfaction in the organization.
2. To examine if there exist any significant relationship between career training and affective work satisfaction in the organization.
3. To examine the relationship between career development and cognitive work satisfaction in the organization.
4. To examine if there exist any significant relationship between career training and cognitive work satisfaction in the oganization.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
This study addressed issues relating to the following pertinent questions emerging within the domain of study problems. However, the research questions are itemized below as; viz:
1. What is the relationship between career development and affective work satisfaction in the organization?
2. What is the relationship between career training and affective work satisfaction in the organization?
3. What is the relationship between career development and cognitive work satisfaction in the organization?
4. What is the relationship between career training and cognitive work satisfaction in the organization?
To proffer useful answers to the research questions and realize the study objectives, the following hypotheses are stated in their null form, such as:
Hoi: There is no significant relationship between career development and affective work satisfaction in the organization.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between career training and affective work satisfaction in the organization.
Ho3: There i& no significant relationship between career development and cognitive work satisfaction in the organization.
Ho4: There is no significant relationship between career training and cognitive work satisfaction in the organization.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The essence of this study is to reveal the significant relationship that exists in the influence of management training program on job satisfaction as a means of achieving their corporate goals and objectives. It is in the light of this that managerial expert engages in research on the challenges that ova around the research concept prior towards maximizing its affective work satisfaction, cognitive work satisfaction and productivity. Thus, this study will enhance and facilitate the innovative and modification strategy on how to increase entrepreneurial development, skills, knowledge, cognitive ability and potentials. Also, this research work will be beneficial to the small and medium scales enterprise, agricultural sector, educational sector,
political sector, tourism and hospitality firm, legal advisers, non governmental organization and the society at large.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The conceptual scope of the study is grounded on the impact of
career development on employee productivity prior to career development, career training and career development in alignment with affective work satisfaction and cognitive work satisfaction.
The theoretical scope of the study is centered on the various modem
scholars on the context. The area of this study is the centered on
selected public institution in Rivers State. Thus, these are;
1. Nigeria Television Authority (NTA)
2. Rivers State Sustainable Development Agency (RSSDA)
3. Nigeria Port Authority (NPA)
4. Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC)
5. Nigeria Liquidified Natural Gas (NLNG)
Moreover, Baridam (2001), averred, that every study has certain limitation which fall short of the ideas which the researchers has established or recognized. Knowledge of these limitations is essential for an interpretation of the findings. And it was really limited because getting the responses for the questionnaire from all the respondents, hence the sample size is reduced unavoidable and the analysis of the data is based on observed population not on expected population. Also, not all respondent returned their questionnaires and some were bias. Also, certain financial and logistics constraint where encountered.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Career Development: This is process enables employee lo know
his/herself and then matching interests, aspirations, innovativeness, creativity and skills with options for study and work.
- Career Training: this is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies.
- Cognitive. Employee productivity: this is the extent of individuals’ satisfaction with particular facets of their jobs, such as pay, pension arrangements, working hours, and numerous other aspects of their jobs.
- Affective Employee productivity: t is the extent of pleasurable
emotional feelings individuals have about their jobs overall.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This study is organized as follows. Chapter one is the introduction and is composed of the overview problem statement, research purpose, research questions, research hypothesis, and significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study.
Chapter two covers the literature review. The researchers made an attempt to explore what previous researchers have done. Chapter three is the researcher methodology; it covers the research design population, amp1ing produces, data collection method, data analysis techniques etc.
Chapter four is data presentation, analysis and interpretation. Chapter five is concerned with discussion of findings, conclusion and recommendation on the usefulness of the study.