FISH FARMING (PISCICULTURE)
Fish farming involves the raring of fish in an enclosure or tank for food.
Firstly, fish is a major source of protein. Due to its high demand for consumption which is increasing daily there is need to add to the supply chain of this product to the market. Fish farming is also a good business with effective management it is sure to yield a reasonable profit.
OBJECTIVES OF PROPOSED FISH FARMING BUSINESS
The objective of this fish farming business is to maintain a high level and standard fish farm to meet the desired market demand and competition in the fish farm business.
On a long term objective, the fish farm is required to stand the test of time due to proper management and generate maximum profit/income and be able to support any other form of business and investment.
Our Mission and Vision Statement
- Our Vision is to become one of the leading fish and seafood farm brands not just in the Rivers state but also on the nation.
- Amadeb fishing Farm is a world class and registered fish and seafood farming company that is committed to raising fish and seafood for both the South South market and the national market. We want our fish and seafood to flood the nooks and crannies of the South South and other parts of the countries Nigeria
- .Creation of employment as way of alleviate unemployment in the country.
BENEFITS OF FISH FARMING
From personal analysis and feasibility study of the open market, fish farming is a business that can yield at least 50-65% profit.
TYPE OF FISH TO REAR
The type of fish to rear is CATFISH. This is because apart from its high protein content, CATFISH is a delicious delicacy and they are able to grow in captivity. The CATFISH have a lifespan of over a year and can grow to adult or table size within 1-6months for fingerling stage.
FACTORS TO CONSIDERED FOR FISH FARMING AT THE PROPOSED FARM LOCATION
Fish farming like any other business requires an enormous amount of planning, knowledge and skill.
This has made me extensively study the techniques involved in the fish production and the necessary equipments needed as well as cost implications
Considered factors include;
- Water source
- Drainage system for facility
- Environmental factors
- Conduciveness of environment and surrounding structures
- Power supply
The proposed fish farm is located at Toll Gate, KM16 Phc/Aba Express way, Port Harcourt, Near River State Cattle Market.
The water supply for the fish farm is a borehole system. The borehole has already been created for water supply to the fish pond through the water supply inlet to the ponds. This is necessary to enable renewal or reintroduction of fresh water to the fish pond. The water is the source of oxygen for the fishes and must be constantly renewed to enable the fishes grow in a conducive environment.
The drainage system is a very important and a key factor in every fish farm must be made available for water outlet from the fish pond to expel to contaminated water from the pond. The fish pond will drain its water from its water outlet into the drainage that is linked to the main drainage system outside the main gate of the farm.
Due to the nature of the proposed farm environment which consists of undeveloped vast lands and cattle market which attract birds that have the ability to hunt for fish from a distance and various sized rodents that can crawl into enclosures. It is ideal to secure fish pond with a roof and wire mesh to prevent bird and rodents from access into the fish ponds which can lead to pollution, major loss and damage of fish pond.
CONDUCIVENESS OF ENVIRONMENT AND SORRUNDING STRUCTURE
The proposed fish farm location and environment is very calm and conducive for fish farming, with proper management of the facility it has no adverse effect on the environment and the surrounding structures. Due to the close proximity of the fish farm
Location and the cattle market, it is advised to adhere to strict measures to prevent transfer of bacteria from the cow dung along the road to the fish farming area.
Due to the unavailability of power supply in the proposed farm area for now I intend to use a power supply generator in the farm as a temporary source of power in other to pump water from the borehole to the fish ponds.
- Quality of fingerlings or juveniles
- Feeding plan
- Feed type
- Sorting system
- Water changin6 Pond size/spacing
QUALITY OF FINGERLINGS OR JUVENILES
The quality of fingerlings or juveniles gotten from another fish farm to be introduced into fish pond matters a lot in the growth of the fish. The better the quality of the fingerling or juvenile the better the growth rate. The shooters and jumpers are best. I will ensure I get the right products for the right source to ensure a good production rate in the fish farm. Juveniles cost N50 per juveniles and the start stock of juveniles for the proposed fish pond is 6000 juveniles.
N50 per juvenile x 6000 = N300,000.00
From analysis, the best fish feed in the market is COPPENS FISH FEED.
N5800 per bag. Fish feeds differ in sizes. The fish feeds are in pallets and range in sizes from 1.5mm, 2mm, 4mm, and 6mm.
Juveniles will be feed 2mm feed until they grow to a size considerable enough to increase their feed size.
Amount of feed needed from juveniles to table size (1-6months)
*1st -2nd month – 1bag of feed daily – 30bags – N174,000.00
*2nd-3rd month – 1.5 bags of feed daily – 45bags – N261,000.00
*3rd-4th month – 2bags of feed daily – 60bags – N348,000.00
*4th -5th month – 2.5 bags of feed daily – 75bags – N435,000.00
*5th -6th month – 1.5 bags of feed daily – 50bags – N290,000.00
Total bag of fish feed 260bags x N5800 – N1,508,000.00
The feeding patterns involved in fish farming includes
- Broadcast system of feeding
- One spot system of feeding
The broadcast system of feeding is best practiced between the 1st -3month to ensure that all the fishes are well fed as this system reduces competition and bully.
The onse spot system is used to feed the fishes when they are more mature. This pattern will be less stressful for the laborer involved in feeding the fishes.
The estimated feeding schedule is twice daily depending on the appetite and consumption. This will be observed during feeding.
With adequate sorting of fish in the farm there will be proper feeding system and also avoid cannibalism and bully among fishes in the pond.
WATER CHANGING PLAN
It is best practice to change the water from the pond by draining the cold and contaminated water from the water outlet and introduce fresh water into the pond from the borehole from the water inlet. This gives the fishes in the pond good source of oxygen and they are able to feed well and grow well.
The pond size matters in the fish farming. This is important because proper spacing averts overcrowding and this ensures effective feeding. When the fishes have enough space to swim and feed they grow properly and feel relaxed. We have 6 big pond(6’/3.6’) which will contain 1000 juveniles each and 5 small ponds(2 are (3’/2’) and 3 are (2’/2’) to be used for sorting of fishes as they grow.
This involves the forecasting and having a blueprint of how the farm is suppose to be operated. The farm will be operated under strict disciplinary measures and well regulated to meet the desired output or yield.
The proposed farm will employ the services of laborers who will ensure the cleaning of the pond and its environment and as well feed of the fishes in the pond. The laborers will be resident in the farm house and ensure they meet the expectations of their assigned task. Two (2) laborers will be employed. They will be properly enlightened on how to ensure the
proper maintenance of the facility and also feeding schedule of the fishes in the pond.
|S/N||POSITION||NUMBER OF PERSONS|
Proposed salary for Personnel
Laborers – N15,000.00
The salaries are to be reviewed by management after 3 months from operation of farm.
- 2wheel barrows -N18,000.00
- 2 rakes – N2,000.00
- 2 shovels – N3,000.00
- 6 buckets(4small/2big) -N10,000.00
- Measuring scale – N12,000.00
- 4 cutlass – N4,000.00
- 4 broom – N1,000.00
- 2 touch lights – N3,000.00
- 2 Rechargeable light – N4,000.00
Total cost – N57,000.00 (fifty seven thousand naira only)
Fish Pond Operations
This shall include the feeding of the fish, cleaning of the pond environment and the water changing system of the fish pond. The fishes are to be fed twice a day and water will be changed at least 3times a week per fish pond. The surrounding of the pond will be cleaned on a daily basis to prevent any form of settlement of borrowing rodent from the pond avoid any form of pollution from the surrounding.
Fish Pond Stocking
The total amount of juveniles to be stocked in all 6 big ponds is 6000, 1000 per pond by sorting the fishes to enable even growth of the jumpers, shooter and fishes with stunted growth. Overcrowding will be prevented to enable proper spacing and avoid struggle for food.
This process will enable the harvest of fish to be in stages as some will be able to attain table size before others and will result in varying harvest. This will be properly regulated to make sure there is no over feeding beyond the target harvest period to avoid loss due to the excessive expenses on feed purchase
There will be steady lookout in the open market to source for less expensive feeds but still high in protein level. As the fish farm business progresses I intend to process my own local feed with the right fish feed formula to cut the cost of running the fish farm.
There is an adequate storage facility in the farm house. This will maintain proper storage of fish feeds without pest and moisture.
Sanitation of ponds
There will be proper sanitation of ponds and liming before restocking
There will be an effective financial management system and accounting for the fish farm business. This is to enable the proper and transparent management of finance involved in the business.
There will be projected cost analysis and monthly expenses statement.
There will be intensive marketing of the fish farm and its products 2months ahead before the fishes are ready for sale. To enable information get to buyers from different places. The market strategies to be used for marketing of the fish when they are ready for sale includes but not limited to the following;
- Door to door
- Word of mouth to inform interested buyers
- Direct approach to hotels, bars and restaurants
- Reach out to market women
- Drying and sales to stores, supermarkets and individuals.
- Direct sale in the open market.
From my analysis, the direct sale in the open market is most profitable because the fish is being bought by the consumers who buy according to what they see and the price of sale is not fixed unlike the sale to the market women and others who come to the farm to buy in quantity according to weight and sell it in the open market for higher profit to consumer.
For instance a 1kg catfish sells for N700 – N800 if buying according to weighing scale by the marketers when they visit the farm but in the direct sale to the consumers in the open market the same 1kg of fish can be sold for N1500 and above because the consumers buy the catfish according to the size and not weight. This method of sale is more profitable.
Proposed entry into other fish markets
It is observed that the demand and cost of catfish in the North and South-East region are relatively high. Due to nearness of the fish farm site to the cattle market there will be avenue to encourage interested business men to invest in the fish farm for export of the to the Northern part of the country for sale. The well dried and packaged catfish can be sold in large quantity as well to enable easy export to anywhere needed.