The study focused on the employee training and organizational performance. Employee training is based on various reasons which could be detrimental to the overall objective of the organization. The HRD ensure that sending an employee on training will translate to increase in productivity. Thus, adequate consideration should be taken by the HRD when selecting a candidate for training. Since the effect of these factors brings with it some negative implications and consequences of low productivity, high rate of employee turnover and high cost; this study therefore was aimed at identifying the employee training and organizational performance with special emphasis on the process and procedure of selecting employee for training. Pursuant to this, some objectives were formulated by the researcher and these were to ascertain the extent to which unsystematic approach of employee training and organizational productivity; to determine the extent of effect of training design on employee productivity; to ascertain the extent to which training delivery style affects employee productivity; to determine the relationship between employee perceptions of training and organizational productivity; and to determine the extent to which employee training and organizational performance in Soft Drinks Bottling Companies in Port Harcourt. The population used for the study was 694 staff of Nigerian Soft Drinks Bottling Company. Sample size was determined using Yamane (1964) formula. A sample size of 254 was drawn. The study made use of data from primary and secondary sources which were collected using questionnaire administered to the 254 staff of the selected Organizations. Personnel records and annual reports of the selected Organizations were used for secondary data. The data analyses was carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), while the person product moment correlation coefficient and the one-sample test were used to test the hypotheses formulated in the study. Findings from the study reveal that the extent to which unsystematic approach of employee training affected organizational productivity was high. This was statistically supported by the one-sample test at 0.05 (Zc = 8.246 < Zt = 0.000). Again, the extent of effect of training design on employee productivity was high. The one-sample test (Zc = 0.679 < Zt = 0.730; α= 0.05) confirms this assertion. The extent to which training delivery style affected employee productivity was high as attested to by the result of one-sample test (Zc = 0.681 < Zt = 0.762; α= 0.05). Similarly, there was a very strong positive relationship between employee perception of training and organizational performance. This is confirmed with the Pearson Correlation coefficient value of 0.948 at 0.05level of significance. This is confirmed by the one-sample test at 0.05 (Zc = 0.705 > Zt = 0.665). Based on the finding, the study concludes that if the right employees are sent on training through the systematic training procedure of identifying and selecting employees for training, there would be a significant improvement on the organizational performance. Finally, it is recommended that a mechanism should be created for proper assessment and evaluation of employee performance after training as this will ensure that only employees who require training are sent on training.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1-2
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2-3
1.3 Objective of the Study 3-4
1.4 Research question 4
1.5 Hypotheses 4-5
1.6 Significant of Study 5
1.7 Scope of Study 5
1.8 Limitations of the Study 5-6
1.7 Definition of Terms 6
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Overview of the Employee Training and Organizational Performance 7
2.2 Conceptual Framework 8
2.2 Purpose of Training 8-9
2.2.2 Types of Training 9-10
2.3 Concept of Psychological Contract 10
2.4 Theoretical Framework of Employee Training 11-12
2.5 Theoretical Models Linking Training to Organizational Performance 12-13
2.6 Successful Models of training and Development 13
2.6.1 Addie Instructional Design Model 13-35
2.18 Measures of Productivity and Profitability 35-36
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 37
3.2 Population of Study 37
3.3 Population Distribution 37
3.4 Determination of Sampling Size 31-32
3.5 Method of Data Collection 38-39
3.6 Validation of the Research Instruments 39
3.7 Data Analysis Techniques 39
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANLYSIS
4.1 Presentation of Data 41
4.2 Data Analysis 42.52
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
5.1 Summary of findings 53
5.2 Conclusions 53
5.3 Recommendations 54
5.4 Contribution of Knowledge 48-52
1.1 Background to the Study
The history of training in business organizations is as long as the entire history of business organizations (Miller, 2015:3). This is because the knowledge base or skills of the normal employees in the labour market is not sufficient for the specialized tasks within the organizations. However, the academic study of various forms of training did not start until about a century ago, when researchers started a branch of research under the name of “vocational training” (Salas and Cannon Bowers, 2014). The beginning of the twentieth century and especially after World War II saw the widespread of training programs among organizations, involving more and more employees and also expanding in content (Luo, 2013). In the 1910s, only a few large companies such as Westinghouse, General Electric, and International Harvester had factory schools that focused on training technical skills for entry-level workers. By the end of 1990, forty percent of the Fortune 500 firms in America had a corporate university or learning center (Meister, 2011).
Training in Nigeria could be traced back to 1960 when it was discovered that most of the top government and business positions were occupied by expatriates (Olalere and Adesoji, 2013). The departure of the whites after independence gave rise to a big vacuum of capable indigenous human capital. This prompted the Federal Government of Nigeria to set up a Manpower Board in 1962 following the Ashby Commissions Recommendations (Olalere and Adesoji, 2013:83). Consequently, the Federal Government of Nigeria established complimentary institutions like the Centre for Management Development (CMD), Administrative Staff College of Nigeria, Industrial Training Fund (ITF), and Federal Training Centre to train and retrain employees as well as give orientation to fresh graduates of formal academic institutions (Olalere and Adesoji, 2013).
Today, we are witnessing an overwhelming number of research studies from both descriptive and prescriptive traditions, focusing on several characteristics of training programs as well as their costs and benefits for business organizations (Becker and Gerhart, 2016). At the same time, organizations have come to better understand the significance of training for their survival in knowledge-intensive and volatile markets of this era, and thus have increasingly acknowledged the profitability of developing their human resources through various forms of training (Berge, 2012; Salas and Cannon- Bowers, 2014). Human resource capital of any organization plays an important role, thus training and retraining helps in fortifying employees (Khan, Khan and Khan, 2011).
Despite the obvious significance of training, the enormous expansion in the content of training programs over time has largely been taken for granted. Some Human Resources Departments rarely question the necessity and appropriateness of training a particular employee at a particular time. Often times, there are ulterior motives why employees are sent on training. Mourdouk out as (2012) found out that some of those organizations that neglect employee training do so because of the huge cost of training and the fear of losing those employees after training them.
To show the importance attached to employee training, Nigerian Bottling Company has a training school and conducts on-the-job and off-the-job training for employees from time to time. This notwithstanding HR Departments in these organizations still face challenges in the selection of employees for training. To assist in the possible improvement of employee training in Soft Drinks Bottling Companies in particular and manufacturing companies in general, the research was embarked upon to investigate the relationship between employee training and organizational performance vis-à-vis the processes of employee training and the challenges faced by the Human Resource Department in the selection of employees for training with reference to the employees of Nigerian Bottling Company plot 126 Trans-Amadi Industrial Layout, Port Harcourt Rivers State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The perception of employees on training has a greater impact on the success of any organization. If the employees are satisfied with the training policies of the organization, this will have a positive impact on the organization’s productivity. The perception or attitude of employees is transformed into positive or negative behaviour. How do the employees see employee training policies of the organization? How seriously does the Management take the Training Policy of its organization? Some see training and development as a waste of time and resources that would have been employed in the production of goods and services that will yield profit to the organization. Sometimes, the fear that an employee could leave the organization after training affects the employees training and sometimes makes it unplanned and unsystematic.
The procedure and process usually adopted by some Human Resource Departments in the identification of those employees that require training are worrisome. Employees sometimes go for training for personal reasons which include enriching themselves; preparing themselves for other positions in other organizations; power play/politics; because he/she knows the person in-charge of training and not necessarily because there is an identified skill gap which needs to be filled through training. Often times, the HR Department does not conduct training needs assessment. Employees’ training selection criteria ought to be systematic and free from bias. It must follow a lay down procedure to ensure that the right candidates are sent for training for positive effect on organizational performance.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between of employee training on organizational performance with focus on the processes and procedures of selection employees for training. However, specific objectives of the study are as follows:
- To ascertain the relationship between selection procedure of employee for training and organizational productivity;
- To ascertain the extent to which training delivery style affects employee productivity;
- To find out the relationship between employee perceptions of training and organizational productivity; and
- To determine the extent to which employee training affects organizational performance.
1.4 Research Questions
The research questions were drawn in line with the objectives as follows:
- What is the relationship between selection procedure of employee for training and organizational productivity?
- To what extent does training delivery style affect organizational performance?
- What is the relationship between employee perception of training and organizational productivity?
- To what extent does employee training affects organizational performance?
To achieve the objectives of this study, the following five hypotheses were formulated for testing.
Ho:1 There is no significant relationship between selection procedure of employee for training and organizational productivity.
Ho:2 The extent to which training delivery style affects organizational productivity is not significant.
Ho:3 There is no substantial relationship between employee perception of training and organizational productivity.
Ho:4 The extent to which employee training affects organizational productivity is not significant.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study cannot be over-emphasized and can be viewed from the following perspectives.
- The study will help the top management in taking strategic decision that affect training and development for the overall growth of the industry;
- Members of Staff of the two manufacturing industries to be used as case study will have adequate knowledge as to the importance of training and why it is necessary that they are trained from time to time;
- The study will help the Human Resource Department in proper planning and execution of training and development programmes;
- The study will be useful to the researcher as it will help her in actualizing her dream and lead her to the completion of B.Sc. program in Entrepreneurship.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study focused on the investigation of the effect of employees training on organizational performance. The study was delimited to training and development programmes, employee training design and delivery style, post-training performance evaluation of training on organizational performance.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The following constraints were encountered in the course of this work.
- Lack of reliable data: The Respondents’ unwillingness to give out available and reliable data was major constrain in the course of the study.
- Dearth of Research materials: The researcher was constrained in the search of research materials. Most current books and journals on the related area are not free, and so the researchers was limited to those materials she could afford.
- Measure used to collect data: Secondary data would have been more appropriate for the post-evaluation analysis, but because it was difficult to separate and link percentage (%) increase in turnover to employee training, primary data was used.
- Self-reported data: Self-reported data was a major limitation of the study, because it rarely can be independently verified. The researcher had to take what the respondents said at face value.
Nonetheless, with available data and judicious use of the limited resources, reasonable analysis was carried out to ensure that research findings add up to the body of knowledge.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
Delivery style –
This is a set of a systematic processes designed to meet learning
objectives related to trainees’ current or future jobs (Simmering, M.J.,www.referenceforbusiness.com).
This is the process of creating a blueprint for the development of instruction for a training for positive impact (O’Toole, S., eHow Contributor).
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Overview of the Employee Training and Organizational Performance
There has been a general resistance to investment in training in organizations until recently because of the presumption that employees hired under a merit system are qualified and trained for their jobs (Okotoni and Erero, 2015). It was further assumed that if that was not the case then it means that initial selection of personnel was faulty (Stahl, 1956). This assumption no longer holds as the need for training became evident in all sectors (Okotoni and Erero, 2015). Training offers a way of “developing skills, enhancing productivity and quality of work, and building worker loyalty to the firm” (http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos021.htm).
Training has become the Holy Grail to some organizations, an evidence of how much the management truly cares about its workforce (Hamid, 2011). Hamid (2011) went further to say that the effectiveness with which organizations manage, develop, motivate, involve and engage the willing contribution of those who work in them is a key determinant of how well these organizations perform.
Usually, before training programmes are organized efforts are made through individuals and organization’s appraisals to identify the training needs (Olaniyan & Ojo, 2017:327). After the training programmes, an evaluation is carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of the programme in line with the need, which had been identified (Olaniyan & Ojo, 2017). The essence of evaluation is to know the extent to which the training has positively affected the employee’s productivity. Organization’s development follows the development of individual who form the organization. It therefore follows that no organization becomes effective and efficient until the employee has acquired and applied the required skills and knowledge.