This study is on the effect of multiple taxation on thesurvival of small and medium scale enterprises. Over the years, small and medium scale enterprises have been an avenue of job creation and the empowerment of Nigeria’s citizen, providing about 50% of all jobs in Nigeria and also for local capital formation. However, the mortality rate of these small firms is very high. Among the factors responsible for these untimely close-ups are tax related issues, ranging from multiple taxation to enormous tax burdens. The study therefore examines the effect of multiple taxation on SMEs survival. The study involved a survey research design with a population of 91. The researchers derived their sample size to arrive at 74 and a self administered questionnaire was used to collect data. These data was quantitatively analyzed with simple percentages and tested the research hypothesis with ANOVA. Findings revealed that multiple taxation has negative effect on SMEs’ survival and the relationship between SMEs’ size and its ability to pay taxes is significant. We therefore recommends that government should come up with a uniform tax policies that will favour the development of SMEs in Nigeria and government should put into consideration the size of SMEs when setting tax policies.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Statement of Hypotheses
1.5 significant of the study
1.6 Limitations of Study
2.1 Empirical Issues
2.1.1 Tax Policy and the Growth of SMEs
2.1.2 Policy Measures that will Encourage SMEs Growth
2.2 Theoretical Framework
2.2.1 Theory of Business Growth
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Technique
3.4 Method of Data Analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.2 Test of Hypotheses
4.3 Decision Rule:
4.4 Discussions of Findings
SUMMARY , CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 Background of Study
In recent time the world economy has developed tremendously and this has been linked with activities of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs), especially in developing countries. A Study carried out by the Federal Office of Statistics shows that in Nigeria, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises make up 97% of the economy (Ariyo, 2005). Although smaller in size, they are the most important enterprises in the economy due to the fact that when all the individual effects are aggregated, they surpass that of the larger companies. The social and economic advantages of small and medium scale enterprises cannot be overstated. Panitchpakdi (2006) sees SMEs as a source of employment, competition, economic dynamism, and innovation which stimulates the entrepreneurial spirit and the diffusion of skills. Because they enjoy a wider geographical presence than big companies, SMEs also contribute to better income distribution. Over the years, small and medium scale enterprises have been an avenue for job creation and the empowerment of Nigeria’s citizens providing about 50% of all jobs in Nigeria and also for local capital formation. Being highly innovative, they lead to the utilization of our natural resources which in turn translates to increasing the country’s wealth through higher productivity. Small and medium scale enterprises have undoubtedly improved the standard of living of so many people especially those in the rural areas (Ariyo, 2005).However, the mortality rate of these small firms is very high. According to the Small and Medium Scale Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) Nigeria, 80% of SMEs die before their 5th anniversary. Among the factors responsible for these untimely close-ups are tax related issues, ranging from multiple taxations to enormous tax burdens etc. In many government policies, small and medium scale enterprises are usually viewed and treated in the same light as large corporations. However, their size and nature makes them unique. Therefore, in dealing with small and medium scale enterprises, these unique qualities need to be considered. In levying of taxes for these enterprises in particular, issues that need to be considered are how these tax policies can be designed to bolster the growth of SMEs and the most effective ways to administer them. The importance of SMEs as a mechanism of economic growth arid development is often ignored.
They are perceived as minute establishments that have minimal effect on the state of the economy. However, if favorable environment is created for these SMEs to grow through proper regulation, the SMEs sector has the highest propensity to transform our economy. In the same light, taxes are important for the government as they are the major source of funds for government expenditure. Income obtained from taxation of individuals and businesses are used to run governments as well as provide infrastructure such as good roads, water supply, and electricity which are essential for the smooth running of these businesses that are mainly manufacturing companies and as such rely on these commodities to survive.
However, Holban (2007) posited that taxation can contribute to development and to welfare through three sources; It must be able to generate sufficient funds for financing public services and social transfers at a high level of quality, it should offer incentive for more employment and for an efficient and lasting use of natural resources, finally it should be able to reallocate income. But in the case of SMEs, tax must be done in such a way that puts their income and need for into consideration. it is expedient that enough profit is allowed them for the purpose of expanding their businesses. The tax policy must be one that will not encourage SMEs to remain in the informal sector or to evade or avoid tax payments. More so, many small firms in Africa, including Nigeria, choose to remain in the informal sector because the perceived benefits outweigh the perceived costs. Firms rarely see their tax contributions at work and the compliance costs are high, thus discouraging compliance. The government is also discouraged from collecting taxes from small firms, because the cost of monitoring and collecting tax from small businesses by revenue authorities, whose resources are usually scarce, sometime outweighs the revenues generated by small businesses (Stem and Barbour 2005).
The focus of this research therefore is to examine the effect of multiple taxations on the survival of (SMEs) and the importance of taxes to the Nigerian economy, to establish the relationship between tax policy and the growth of SMEs in Nigeria and to evaluate the factors that encourage non-compliance with tax obligation by SMEs,
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Although there was a general perception that tax is an important source of fund for development of the economy and provision of social services, the problems faced are in the area of negative relationship between taxes and the business’ ability to sustain itself and to expand, SMEs are faced with the problem of high tax rates, multiple taxation, complex tax regulations and lack of proper enlightenment or education about tax related issues. Not minding other challenges that SMEs are facing in other developing countries like Nigeria; inadequate capital, poor technical and managerial skills, environmental effects and the government regulations which is most affecting the operation of SMEs in Nigeria especially this issue of multiple taxation which is a worm eating deeply and the large chunk of revenues generated by these SMEs for their growth and . These have led to increase in record of dearth of Small and Medium Scale Enterprise (SMEs)
1.3 Objectives of Study
The general objective of the study is to examine the effect of multiple taxations on SMEs survival.
- To examine the relationship between multiple taxation and SMEs .
- To ascertain whether SMEs ability to pay taxes depends on their size.
1.4 Statement of Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses were developed in order to properly address the problems of the study. These hypotheses were stated in Null form as follows:
- Ho1: There is no significant relationship between multiple taxation and SMEs .
- Ho2: The relationship between SMEs’ size and it ability to pay taxes is not significant.
1.5 Significant of the study
For some decades now, Nigeria has depended on oil for its major income and foreign exchange. Oil accounts for about of Social Sciences Published by 80 percent of federal government revenues, and 95 percent of foreign exchange earnings. The National Centre for Economic Management and Administration (NCEMA) reports that Nigeria, with a population of about 120 million, is Africa’s most populous country and the continent’s third largest economy yet it still remains one of the poorest oil producing countries. With a continuously declining per capita income, comparatively unfavorable social indicators, dynamic world economy and the fact that countries are looking into alternative sources of energy it is time to begin to look into alternative sources of income for sustenance in the long run when the demand for oil will dwindle to nothing. Even with the present rates of petroleum products, Nigeria’s CDP is below ideal with the SMEs contributing therefore it would not hurt to diversify the economy even before the demand for petroleum products finally diminishes. This means it is time to begin to give more attention to the other sectors of the economy.
This translates into looking at non-oil based sectors in Nigeria such as agriculture, manufacturing, commerce and tourism. These industries are primarily made up of SMEs as such it goes without saying that SMEs are important to the Nigerian economy. The country is blessed with fertile farmlands, vast mineral deposits and a wealth of human resource, making it a very favorable place for small arid medium enterprises. These resources have p laced Nigeria in a prominent position in Africa, For governments, however, large companies are a more attractive, more clear-cut and less complex set than SMEs, In designing public policies, particularly tax policies, governments have usually targeted their strategies to large companies (Holban, 2007). Therefore, there is a need to devise methods to encourage the growth and development of these enterprises so as to ensure that they reach their full potential. Subsequently, a favorable business and regulatory environment needs to be created for them to thrive. Thus, for this study, the focus will be on supporting SMEs growth through tax policy. Most large companies have their roots in small and medium enterprises; they started out as SMEs before expanding. This means that the future large corporations are the SMEs today that should be nurtured to ensure their growth. Furthermore, they are generally perceived to be the seedbed for indigenous entrepreneurship and generate all the many small investments, which would otherwise not have taken place (Aryeetey & Ahene, 2004).Therefore, Nigeria needs to further the development of its private sector by creating an environment favorable to the growth of SMEs, strengthening the factors that lead to business success, and addressing the problems threatening the existence and advancement of small and medium enterprises (Chu, Kara & Benzing, 2008) With the dismantling of trade and other barriers, the world has been transformed into a global village.
Consequently, SMEs in developing countries are struggling to survive under intense competitive environments both domestic and international. In developing countries like Nigeria, there is an urgent need to provide the required enabling environment for the development of SMEs, so that they could adequately play the role expected of them in economic transformation, Such role includes mobilization of domestic savings for investment, appreciable contribution to gross domestic product, increased harnessing of local raw materials, employment generation, and significant contribution of poverty reduction efforts through sustainable livelihoods and enhancement in personnel income, technological development and export diversification (Smatrakalev, 2006). It is for this reason that an ideal tax policy needs to be adopted in order to ensure economic growth and proper utilization of resources. However this is not the case because taxes which are levied for regulating the investment behavior of the households and not for suffocating any entrepreneur initiative seem to be a major constraint to the development of the SMEs they are out to cater for.
Olorunshola (2003), the concept of SMEs is relative and dynamic. The characteristics of SMEs are uncertainty, innovation and evolution. A firm understanding of SMEs world required a good knowledge of its features. In Nigeria SMEs are usually small in size and lack large organizational structure and management culture while the urban SMEs are more structural, the rural ones are less structured. This represents one of the most important characteristic of SMEs in Nigeria. SMEs are in most cases a one man business or partnerships enterprise, although they many be registered as limited liability company, (Udechukay, 2003). Olurunshola (2003) affirmed that this ownership style has led small and main enterprise to have a simple management structure and make it easiest to manage than that of large firms, and few numbers of staff and in some cases low level of education by some owners of SMEs. SMEs almost shave the same characteristic with a sole proprietorship in that, there is no legal personality between the SMEs and their owners, which means that the life span of SMEs depends on the life of the owners; when the owner dies, if not properly taken care by the estate the business will die with the owner(s) Another feature of the SMEs sector in some countries is its heterogeneous nature, ranging from retail outlets to hugely paid professionals and substantially manufactured organisation small and medium enterprise are also likely to vary in organizational form, from sole proprietorship (one man business), scale corporations (public or private), professionals and partnerships.
Furthermore, the process of production in SMEs setting are Labour intensive and they always serve as supplier to the large manufacturing firms by depending on raw materials sourced locally (Hanefah, Ariff and Kasipfflai, 2002). Just like a one man business SMEs also required low startup capital than large companies (Akinsulise, 2010). Also, the decision of manager have higher tendency to be subjective as they are controlled by the same person and the employees employer relationship found in most SMEs is predominantly informal.
In addition, the contribution SMEs usually make to tax revenue is lower than its contributions to output and employment (International Tax Dialogue, 2007), that notwithstanding SMEs have not become competitive enough to increase their shave of output even though they form three fifths of the number of manufacturing industries which are solely rely upon by large manufacturing companies for their supplies (products) (Hanafah et al. 2003).
Depending on the country’s international standing at any point in time and the economic policies adopted by government, the importance of the various source of revenue varies from time to time. Nigeria has mixed economy i.e., government undertakes commercial investment alongside the private sector with social oriented economic policies, government undertakes greater commercial investment. Though taxation may not be the most important source of revenues to government in term of the magnitude of revenue derivable from taxation however, taxation is the most important source of revenue to the government, from the point of view of certainty, and consistency of taxation. In a social oriented economy, only a small percentage of revenue may be derived from taxation while in a capitalist oriented economy, a greater percentage of government revenue, is derivable from taxation (Osita, 2004). According to Eftekhari (2009), taxation has always been an issue for the government and taxpayer alike from the early years of civilization. The issue of taxation has generated a lot of controversy and several political conflicts over time. According to its importance, several economic thrones have been proposed to run an effective system. Osita, (2004) sees taxation as a compulsory levy by government through its various agencies on the income, capital or consumption of its subjects. Tax is basically of three structures proportional, progressive and regressive. Proportional tax is define as a type of tax in which tax payer is levy an amount in proportional to his earned, progressive tax levies are higher rate on higher income earners, while the regressive tax is the one that charges higher rate to person receiving lower income. Tax is classified into two broad categories as direct and indirect tax.
Multiple taxations in relation to a company or individual is a situation where the same profit or income respectively which is liable for tax in Nigeria has been subjected to tax by another tax authority in Nigeria or another country outside Nigeria (Osita, 2004). In such situations relief is usually granted to that tax payer for the earlier tax paid or to which he may be liable. Specific arrangements are made with a view to preventing such multiple taxes or to provide relief as is appropriate in the circumstance.
1.6 Limitations of Study
Uzor (2004) believes that the constraints faced by SMEs in developing countries are not only accentuated with ineffective policy design, but also by market failures in the region. Their lack information technology and knowledge of automation is gradually being reduced given that they serve as contractors for larger firms particularly the foreign manufacturing firms. A major difficulty faced by SMEs is that of lack of access to short and long term capital.