Effects of job rotation and flexible working arrangement on employee productivity: a study of johnruth ventures, port harcourt


This study examined effect of job rotation and flexible working arrangement on employee productivity. Six objectives and six research questions guided this study. moreover, six hypotheses were also tested in course of the. The theoretical framework upon which this study was based is the theory of Flexible Matrix. The survey research design was used. Inferential statistics was used to test hypothesis. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the demographical data. Hypotheses were analyzed using correlation coefficient at 0.05% level of significance. The study found that  job rotation constitute  an alternative to job specialization, where an individual is moved through a schedule of assignments designed to give that individual a breadth of exposure to the entire operation and the process of switching a person from job to job.  Based on the findings the researcher recommended amongst others that employees should be involved in job rotation to be able to understand that they are governed by policies of the company. Management should make sure employees can see how their jobs relate to an agency’s overall mission, which is an important part of successful human resources management. Employee involvement is creating an environment in which people have impacts on decisions and actions that affect their jobs.



Cover Page                                                                              i

Title Page                                                                                 ii

Declaration                                                                              iii

Certification                                                                             iv

Dedication                                                                               v

Acknowledgements                                                                           vi

Abstract                                                                                   vii

Table of Contents                                                                     viii


1.1     Introduction                                                                   1

1.2     Background to the Study                                                2

1.3     Statement of Problem                                                     6

1.4     Objectives of the Study                                                   6

1.5     Research Questions                                                                  7

1.6     Significance of the Study                                                7

1.7     Statement of Hypotheses                                                7

1.8     Justification of the Study                                                9

1.9     Scope of the Study                                                          9

1.10   Definition of Terms                                                                  10



2.0     Introduction                                                                   12

2.1     Conceptual framework                                                    12

2.2     Theoretical Framework                                                   21

2.3     Literature on the Subject Matter                                      26



  • Area of Study                                                                 52
  • Research Design and Sources of Data                              53
  • Study Population and Determination of Sample Size                  53
  • Instrumentation                                                              54
  • Method of Data Collection and Analysis                                   56
  • Limitations of the Study                                                 57



  • Data Analysis                                                                 59
  • Findings of the Study                                                      60
  • Discussion of Findings                                                   67


  • Summary                                                                       71
  • Conclusions                                                                   73
  • Recommendations                                                          73
  • Proposal for Further Studies                                            75

Bibliography                                                                            77




1.1     Introduction

At work, in a human-focused approach, the human-oriented process designs stemming from job rotation, have shown its importance as much as the technical issues, from a productivity aspect. Several human-focused applications such as increasing motivation at work, improving workers’ physical working conditions, obtaining job security, and increasing job satisfaction, increasing quality and productivity, decreasing costs to become competitive are increasing it’s importance by the day (O’Connor, Rudolf & Peters, 2000).

Establishing flexibility programmes has become an increasingly popular human resource practice across Europe and is expected to be a crucial issue for the HR profession in the current decade (Rau and Hyland, 2002). This trend relies on the positive connotation of the word flexibility, especially in comparison with “rigidity” (Rose, 1999) and on the belief that it is beneficial to both the organization and the employees (Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2009). The related academic literature has looked into two main questions. First, great interest has been devoted to the effects of flexibility on different performance measures: attendance and turnover (Dalton & Mesch, 1990), productivity (Konrad & Mangel, 2000), profit and sales growth (PerrySmith & Blum, 2000). Second, analyses have been conducted on the reasons that drive the actors of the employment relationship to adopt such practices (Reilly, 2001). However, to the best of our knowledge, the extant literature has so far overlooked two relevant problems that require attention.

This study is carried out to assess the effects of job rotation and flexible working arrangement on employee productivity using Johnruth Ventures as a study. This chapter of the study is treated under the following subheadings, viz; background to the study, statement of the problem, aims and objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, statement of the hypotheses, justification of the study, scope of the study, definition of terms.

1.2     Background of the study

Human Resource is the most important resource compared with other resources like machine, material, land, etc. In the organizational context, the efficiency of human resource depends on the development of the individual’s job according to human capability and characteristics. Job rotation is one of the most important issues in Human Resource Management.

Many businesses, small and large, are attempting to improve work design systems by the development of job rotation strategy. Job rotation is a strategy conducted by organizations either private or public to improve employee performance and productivity (Schultz 2010). Job rotation is implemented in line with the business goals and human resource strategies of the organization. Job rotation can also be used to alleviate the physical and mental stresses endured by employees when working in the same position, year after year. By allowing employees to rotate to other positions, the risk factors for some types of musculoskeletal disorders may be reduced.

With job rotation, individuals learn several different skills and perform different tasks for a specified time period. There are other reasons a company may choose to utilize job rotation such as using job rotation as a learning mechanism. Although it attracts costs, there are significant benefits that may outweigh the costs involved with training employees for diversified positions.

As a learning mechanism, employees are given the opportunity to learn necessary skills which can help them to advance within a company. This employment opportunity also has the effect of boosting morale and self efficacy. The company may benefit from using job rotation by having the ability to keep key staff within a company. This practice may allow a company to run more efficiently, and as a result, become more productive and profitable.

Job rotation has existed in business life for so many years. It may have been called multi-tasking, lateral transfer, job-shadowing or simply doing what was needed to get the job done. Many independent and family owned businesses use job rotation as a means to learn operations and become “well-rounded” employees. Larger businesses faced with the reality of a shrinking labour pool and an aging executive workforce look up to job rotation as a succession planning tool. To some extent, job rotation enhances the skills and legacy of the organization while working as to retaining younger employees who increasingly demonstrate desires to learn and experience new things. This “expedition” experienced by younger employees helps them to understand the value of each functional area’s contribution to the organizational mission.

Job rotation helps workers to understand the different steps that go into creating a product and/or service delivery, how their own effort affects the quality and efficiency of production and customer service, and how each member of the team contributes to the process. Hence, job rotation permits individuals to gain experience in various phases of the business and, thus, broaden their perspective.

Job rotation is also practised to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into the processes of a company, and to reduce boredom and increase job satisfaction through job variation. Job rotation benefits employees who participate by reducing job burn-out, apathy, and fatigue, which ultimately increase the level of employee satisfaction and motivation according to Plowman (2012).

It is importance to note that though cherished by many, not all employees are open to the idea of job rotation. Higher performers compared to under performers are likely to like job rotation because it is perceived to add to a greater improvement in skills Khan (2010). At senior management levels, job rotation is frequently referred to as management rotation, and is closely linked with succession planning thereby developing a pool of people and providing them with the knowledge and experience which makes them capable of stepping into an existing job. Here the goal is to provide learning experiences, which facilitate transfer and utilization of knowledge as well as changes in thinking and perspective.

Cosgel and Miceli (1999) have pointed out that an increased satisfaction is one of the benefits of job rotation. In their model, employees prefer to perform a variety of tasks rather than specializing in a single task year in and out and as a consequence, job rotation increases job satisfaction. It is a potential solution to employees’ lack of motivation since it inspires employees to achieve higher performance, allowing continuous growth at work, extended knowledge and skill, and increasing employee- customer quality.

Scholars have all proposed that job rotation may help employees to acquire multiple capabilities and expand vision, and that it can be an approach to reduce job burnout. Surveys show that an increasing number of companies like Johnruth Ventures in Port Harcourt are using job rotation to train employees. It is on this background that this study is embarked on to study the effect of job rotation on organizational performance with special reference to Johnruth Ventures, Port Harcourt. It is believed that the findings will increase productivity, new product development and creativity.

1.3     Statement of the Problem

Years ago, management, thought employees come and work to achieve their economic objective. However it is being observed that in addition to economic objectives, employees also demand certain training opportunities and job satisfaction.

Allowing your employees to perform the same transactional duties everyday usually make them feel bored and unsatisfied with what they are doing. Thus the importance of job rotation is introduced to alleviate the physical and mental stresses endured by employees when working in the same position, year after year. It is on this backdrop, that the researcher deemed it necessary to examine the effect of job rotation on organization performance.

1.4     Objectives of the study

The purpose of this study of this study is to examine the effect of job rotation and flexible working arrangement on employee productivity with particular reference to Johnruth Ventures, Port Harcourt. However, in specific terms the study intend to;

  1. To examine the nature of job rotation in Johnruth Ventures
  2. To examine the impacts of job rotation on productivity of employees in Johnruth Ventures Port Harcourt
  3. To examine the nature of job flexibility in Johnruth Ventures
  4. To examine the impacts of job flexibility in Johnruth Ventures
  5. To examine the challenges of job rotation in Johnruth Ventures
  6. To examine the challenge of job flexibility in Johnruth Ventures.

1.5     Research question

Following the research objectives, the research has the following research questions to be answered.

  1. What are the nature of job rotation in Johnruth Ventures?
  2. What are the impacts of job rotation on productivity of employees in Johnruth Ventures?
  3. What are the nature of job flexibility in Johnruth Ventures Port Harcourt?
  4. What are the impacts of job flexibility in Johnruth Ventures?
  5. What are the challenges of job rotation in Johnruth Ventures?
  6. What are the challenge of job flexibility in Johnruth Ventures?

1.6     Research Hypotheses

Ho1:   There is no significant different between the impact of job rotation and job flexibility on productivity of employees in Johnruth Ventures.

1.7     Significance of the study

The significance of job rotation in organizational performance cannot be overemphasized. Many organizations in Nigeria may not actually see the essence of job rotation even though it is beneficial. However, it is a requirement for all organizations of Nigeria for the benefit of employees’ development.

The study unearth how important is the incorporation of job rotation in an organisation’s processes and procedures could benefit an organisation  Job rotation is the surest way of keeping the employee away from complacency and boredom of routine. It is difficult for an employee to sustain his interest in a given job for substantial length of time as people have the tendency of outgrowing their jobs through the learning and experience that they gain over a period of time. Stimulating human mind through diversity of challenges is a sure way to bring to the forefront its creative instincts and in taking the individual and organizational performance to a higher plane.

It is also common knowledge that job rotation is also practised to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into the processes of a company, and to reduce boredom and increase job satisfaction through job rotation. The study will help employers to put more emphasis on job rotation and be able to enhance employees’ performance.

Finally, the study will to add to existing body of knowledge on the effects of job rotation on organizational performance.

1.8     Justification of the Study

Studies on the effects of job rotation and flexible working arrangement on employment are justified in two perspectives. Theoretically, this topic gains its justified from the globally increasingly attention paid to workplace conditions when workers are unable to adequately meet family responsibilities because of their long working hours. This makes workers often feel that meeting family needs could jeopardize their job load. However, little attention has been paid so far to the eventual unintended or undesirable consequences of flexible work arrangements. However, employee health and well-being are crucial to social sustainability. Moreover, undesirable consequences can be omitted potential moderators of the flexibility-performance relationship. Practically, analyses on the link between job rotation and flexibility and negative HR outcomes such as work intensification or decreased employee health and well-being are scarce. Yet, one could venture their relevance both as meaningful outcomes and as driver of performance and profitability (on the basis of numerous studies linking poor health to higher costs, absenteeism, turnover, etc.

1.9     Scope of the study

The study focused on the effects of job rotation and flexible working arrangement on employee productivity. The study is limited to only three departments of Operations, Customer Service and Accounting Department at the head office of John Ruth Ventures in Port Harcourt.

1.10 Definition of Terms

Job: A job is an activity, often regular and performed in exchange for payment.

Rotation: In this study, this is the act of sending staff from one department and job location to another within the organization.

Satisfaction: a pleasant feeling that you get when you receive something you wanted.

Flexible: This has to do with something that cannot be easily cut even if it is stretched.

Commitment: In this study, this is referred to the act of swearing allegiance to an organization.

Motivation: Can be defined as one’s direction to behaviour, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behaviour and vice versa.

Development: The process in which someone or something grows or changes and becomes more advanced and pleasing.


Cosgel, M. & Miceli, T. (1999). Job rotation: costs, benefits and stylized facts. New Jessey: Pearson Practice hall. P74, 2nd Ed.

Dalton, D. R. & Mesch, D. J. (1990). The Impact of Flexible Scheduling on Employee Attendance and Turnover. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(2): 370-387.

Khan, F., (2010). Study Clarifies Job Rotation benefits.

Konrad, A. M. & Mangel, R. (2000). The Impact of Work-Life Programs on Firm Productivity. Strategic Management Journal, 21(12): 1225.

Martínez-Sánchez, A., Vela-Jiménez, M. J., Pérez-Pérez, M., & de Luis-Carnicer, P. (2009). Innovation and labour flexibility: A Spanish study of differences across industries and type of innovation. International Journal of Manpower, 30(4): 360-376.

O’Connor, E. J., Rudolf, C. J. & Peters, L. H. (2000). Individual differences and job design reconsidered: Where do we go from here? The Academy of Management Review, 5(2), 249-254.

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Plowman, J. (2012). Job rotation as a mechanism for learning. Centre for labour market and social research, (work paper 2000-04).

Rau B.L., & Hyland, M. M. (2002). Role conflict and flexible work arrangements: The effects on applicant attraction. Personnel Psychology, 55(1), 111-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2002.tb00105.x

Reilly, P. (2001). Flexibility at work: balancing the interests of employer and employee. Burlington, Vt. USA: Gower

Rose, N. (1999). Powers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought. Cambridge: University Press.

Schultz, D., Schultz, S. E. (2010). Psychology and work today. Boston: person, pp.136,144.

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